This graphic can tell you a lot about your future. Each bar shows how many new infectious diseases have appeared in a year. In 1944 there was one. In 48, three. We have no immunity to new pathogens. Each disease on this list posed a new pandemic threat. It was around 1960 when the number began to rise. When 1990 went around, it wasn't just two or three new diseases that year – it was 18. Soon after, the trend became so evident that a scientist appeared on television with a warning. "What worries me most is that we are going to miss the next disease that is emerging, that we are suddenly going to find a SARS virus that moves from one part of the planet to another, wiping out people in the process." That was 17 years ago. And today, at home in a seemingly endless pandemic purgatory, it seems we have ignored his warning. Covid-19 has opened our eyes to the danger. But has it opened them up enough to look beyond this pandemic to our future? We tracked down the same scientist today to ask: How are you going to stop the next pandemic? He said the trend wasn't looking good. “We are seeing an increased frequency of pandemics. We also have the ones that showed up recently. We still have H.I.V. We still have Ebola. We still have H1N1. We are therefore increasingly adding new ones to the inventory of known pandemic pathogens. This is not a good place for us as a species right now. "If you want to know how to stop the next pandemic, you must first know why it is happening." We humans are an ecological anomaly. In the history of the earth there have never been 7.7 billion large body vertebrates of any species on this one Planets. "This is David Quammen. He's a -" – a very unmystical Darwinist materialist with black holes. "Well, David is a storyteller. He has been writing about the origins of infectious diseases for decades." So we are unparalleled, causing ecological debris that are unprecedented, and that has consequences. "[Explosions]" Pandemics are because of our ecological footprint. And our ecological footprint is accelerating exponentially. "Do you remember this guy? This is Peter Daszak, the scientist who warned us in 2003 He's sometimes called a virus hunter. He goes out to prevent viruses before they find us. "It's the Ve The bond between humans and animals that drives this. And this connection is created when people move to a new region through road construction and deforestation, mining, palm oil production, wood and livestock production. People are moving to new areas. You will encounter wildlife that we didn't really have much contact with. The pathogens penetrate them and can then spread via this connectivity. "[Birds screech]" We're encroaching on their habitats. And just many, many more opportunities for spill-over events. "Christian Walzer is a global veterinarian and executive director of the Wildlife Conservation Society." The destruction on the edge of the forests is one of the Areas where we are very concerned. For example, if you changed the trees that bats would sleep on, they could be driven to an edge. You can be driven to an area where more people live. And suddenly you create a contact area that didn't exist before. "What are these new contact areas like? In this video we show you three ways our changing relationship with wildlife is creating increasingly dangerous pandemic opportunities. So let's say you want to sell toothpaste. No, peanut butter. Wait, wait, shampoo." Anyway, it doesn't matter. In all of these cases, you need palm oil. So you burn down a forest in Malaysia to grow palms. But there were bats in that forest. So the bats make new homes near some fruit trees a pig farm. But soon a virus from these bats invades the farmers who own the property. This is not science fiction. This is how the nipah virus came to humans. "Why did the fruit bats come to humans? Because of the destruction Most of the forest in northern Malaysia, where the bats normally live wild and feed on wild fruits, was most of it ls been destroyed. Instead of the forest, there were, among other things, huge pig farms, pigsties in which thousands of pigs were kept in a single pen to raise meat. Some of these hurdles have been shaded by native fruit trees that have been planted to grow mangoes or star fruits for another source of income for these pig farms. The bats that have lost their wild habitat are attracted to the local fruit trees. They come in, they eat the mango, they eat the star fruit, they drop the pulp into the pigsties. And with that, they drop their feces, urine and virus. It gets into the pigs, spreads in the pigs, and then gets into the pig farmers, pork sellers, and other people. “Land use changes are a major reason why infectious diseases are invading humans. We don't just have to worry about animal habitats, however. Animal diversity can be just as important. “The loss of biodiversity itself has given rise to diseases. When you lose species, you usually stick with certain groups. And when they carry viruses and dominate the landscape, you are more exposed to those viruses than others. “This story doesn't begin in the jungles of Africa or the forests of Southeast Asia. We start in the American suburbs. “When people cut down the forest and turn it into a suburb, like those beautiful suburbs we know in semi-rural Connecticut, where there are large lawns in front of beautiful houses and there are hedges, and then there's someone else's house. A big one Lawn in front of it is a really good habitat for white-footed mice and also for white-tailed deer. Not so good for larger mammals like foxes, weasels, or birds of prey. The hawks and owls tend to disappear, the foxes and the weasels tend to disappear from this environment. What happens then? You get more white-footed mice. You get an abundance of white-footed mice because their predators don't oppress them. “Having an abundance of white-footed mice wouldn't be so bad unless they're the natural reservoir host of Lyme disease. This means that they are harboring the bacteria, but it doesn't make them sick. So if there was a biologically diverse landscape, then – “The pathogen is shared among the various hosts in this landscape. Many of these hosts are incompetent and cannot actually transmit the disease. And so it becomes a dilution effect. ““ The net result of this biodiversity reduction, which is changing the landscape, making it more fragmented and less forested, is more ticks infecting more young children as they roll around in the grass and jump through the hedges. So there is more Lyme disease. “And yet Covid-19 may not have started that way at all. “In the face of the ongoing outbreak, when you create a completely artificial interface to capture animals regionally and globally and bring them together in one place like a wildlife trade market, you are obviously creating fantastic virus overflow opportunities. "A pathogen from one animal may not be transmitted directly to humans, but it can be transmitted to another animal, develop or adapt, and then infect humans. With a rotating multitude of animals stacked on top of one another, the chances of a pandemic are significant. This is a theory about how coronavirus might have started in China. The thing is, in the past, a spillover event from this wildlife market may not have affected you. "We also have to take a step back from the very romantic notion that it is isolated communities living in central Africa. You know, I always point out that a rat you catch now somewhere in northern Congo will be in Brazzaville within 12 hours. "" The Republic of Congo now has one thanks to Chinese help new modern highway and economic artery. " You see, 10 years ago that would have been impossible. But then, China – "The national road was ready -" China wanted access to minerals for mine. In return, they helped with the infrastructure. Now there is a road. You have created access routes, not only for the rare earths that are so important for your mobile phone, but also for viruses. "If you take the plane that evening and you take your rat with you because you want to take it to your family in Paris, it will be less than 24 hours from a very, very remote community to Paris." But the luggage is being checked, you say. The rat would get caught. Maybe. But really, the rat isn't the biggest threat. You're the one. Your bag is being checked. Your blood doesn't. “We all bear part of the responsibility. It's not just people in China who want to eat bats or pangolins. That may be the immediate cause of this encroachment, but in terms of initiating these things, there is generally enough guilt, enough responsibility to go around. “The three ways a pandemic can be shown in this video have one thing in common: us. "Here's what we did. We have changed the planet so significantly and fundamentally that we currently rule every ecosystem on earth. We are the dominant vertebrate species. Our livestock are the dominant biomass on the planet. And that is the problem What we have done is we have created this path through our consumption habits where viruses from wildlife can get into humans and then infect us. And our answer is, we blame one country against another, we blame people for the one way of eating, towards people who don't eat another, and we blame nature. Well, no. We have to point the finger right at ourselves. This is not a tearful argument for the world is falling apart, and it's our fault This is an argument that we are causing this. We therefore have the power to change that. "How do you stop the next pandemic?" Well, that's what you're doing. No. 1, You find out what viruses are in wildlife. We estimate 1.7 million unknown viruses. Let's go and discover them. Let's get the viral sequences. Let's put them in the hands of vaccine and drug developers and get them to develop vaccines and drugs that are largely effective – not just against one pathogen, but against a range of pathogens. But # 2 and critically, we need to work with the churches that are on the front line. And that's a solution that the public is less enthusiastic about. It's old fashioned. It works overseas with different communities doing different things. It's hard work and less attractive to the voting public. We have to do all of this. High-tech, low-tech, but geared towards prevention. It is possible and doable. Let's go ahead and do it. Let's do it. No more pandemics. There's only one problem – money. "Please back." "Thank you, Mr. President. US intelligence says this week that the NIH under the Obama administration in 2015 this Labor gave a $ 3.7 million grant. Why would the US give China such a grant? "" We're going to end this grant very quickly, but – "This is Donald Trump canceling a grant, the Pandemic research funded, including the study of coronavirus in bats. But the grant didn't go to China. It would – you guessed it – Peter Daszak. That grant started in 2015. "2015? Who was president then? “We need to put in place an infrastructure, not just here at home but around the world, that allows us to see it quickly, isolate it quickly, and react quickly to it.” This is not a new battle. “But when we face a pandemic wait w it will be too late to prepare. ”What is new is our response. "It's nobody's fault – it's not like that – who could ever have predicted such a thing?" "What worries me the most is that we're going to miss the next disease that comes up." If we don't want any more Covid-19-like events in the future, we need to stop pandemics before they happen. That means depoliticizing pandemics and investing in prevention. “I think we need to wake up. There is just a certain moment when the public around the world, as this pandemic has hit every country on earth, the public sees their own health as closely related to why these pandemics are caused by wildlife trafficking or deforestation . So we really need to bring home the message that producing a healthier planet will actually save our own lives and improve our own health. "