Possible in 0-5 years
Life Prolonging Supplements
A compound known as alpha-ketoglutarate increases lifespan in female mice and increases health margins in mice of both sexes. One study will test the effects on aging markers in humans.
Healthy living through chemistry
Obesity can cut life expectancy by more than 10 years, and semaglutide, a drug that may soon be approved for weight loss, is about twice as effective as current drugs.
Superpower for the cell's generator
Elamipretide, a drug that helps restore the function of the mitochondrial flags, the powerhouses of cells, is waiting for F.D.A. Approved for the treatment of a rare mitochondrial disease.
The normalization of masks
Maintaining widespread mask-wearing practices could result in a permanent decline in influenza deaths, which in the US ranged from 12,000 to 61,000 annually in the decade leading up to the pandemic.
Further decoding and analysis of the genomes of people aged 110 and over could provide useful insights into what is responsible for their longevity.
Safer birth for black mothers
A bill in Congress partially targets an inequality where black women in the United States are about three times more likely to die than white women during the period including pregnancy, childbirth, and the first year after childbirth.
Powerful mini proteins
A compound similar to MOTS-c – a micropeptide that improves physical fitness, prevents obesity, and extends the healthy lifespan of mice – is in human studies and could be approved within four years.
Primer of cancer immunity
New ways to mobilize the immune system against cancer and new combinations of existing treatments will extend the immunotherapy revolution to a wider variety of hard-to-treat cancers.
Shed light on Alzheimer's
Devices that use specific frequencies of light and sound to stimulate the brain can help treat Alzheimer's disease and other causes of cognitive decline.
mRNA vaccines against cancer
Vaccines that use mRNA technology and have found a proof of concept with Covid-19 are in the pipeline for melanoma, colon cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer and more.
Reduce deaths from pneumonia in children
Respiratory infections kill approximately 750,000 children under the age of 5 each year. The WHO. and UNICEF hope to meet their goal of fewer than three deaths per 1,000 births through vaccination, breastfeeding, access to quality health care and less pollution.
Possible in 5-10 years
Every car has a breathalyzer
A bill in Congress introducing drunk driver detection technology, sometimes called ignition interlock, into all new cars sold in the US could prevent about 10,000 deaths annually.
A third of the world is still not protected by tobacco control measures that prevent millions of deaths each year – and the United States wants to change that by 2030.
The gene editing tool is currently being used in clinical trials to treat blood disorders, cancer and a congenital form of blindness. A heart disease intervention is currently being investigated.
Deep brain stimulation to reduce the urge to eat and increase metabolism could be approved to treat a subgroup of overweight people who are unresponsive to other interventions.
Exercise in a pill
Drugs that mimic some of the benefits of exercise are under development for conditions such as acute kidney injury and Duchenne muscular dystrophy; Someday, they might help delay the effects of aging.
The secret of the young blood
Based on studies in mice, treatments that mimick the chemistry of young blood – by diluting the plasma or regulating other factors – could extend healthy lives, possibly by decades.
A diabetes drug used to treat aging
Metformin is already helping millions treat their type 2 diabetes, reducing the risk of cancer, heart disease, and even Covid-19. A clinical study is being carried out to see if mortality can be reduced for everyone.
Oral rehydration therapy with zinc
Achieving U.N. goals for the use of therapy could help prevent diarrheal deaths in children under 5 by 2030, currently around 500,000 annually.
A cure for H.I.V.?
A "functional cure" for H.I.V. that suppresses the virus without requiring further treatment could be approved by the F.D.A. within 10 years. be approved.
Higher levels of education correlate with longer lifetimes. By 2030, the United States aims to ensure that all children worldwide complete elementary and secondary school.
Individually cultivated microbiomes
Personalized medications and diets could optimize the populations of microbes in our gut, which change as we age and are associated with almost every system in the body.
Chair screening at home
The C.D.C. Supports efforts to increase the proportion of eligible Americans who will be screened for colon cancer through home stool tests and other tools to 80 percent by 2030.
End childhood malnutrition
The United States' goal of ending child malnutrition by 2030 could save the lives of more than two million children under the age of 5 each year.
Possible in 10-20 years
Gene therapies can allow us to optimize genes or regulate their expression to prevent or treat common cancers, autoimmune diseases, diabetes, and neurological diseases.
A study in The Lancet Global Health found that significantly expanding the services midwives can provide in developing countries could prevent 41 percent of maternal deaths, 39 percent of newborn deaths, and 26 percent of stillbirths.
Tuberculosis killed around 1.4 million people in 2019. Until 2035 the W.H.O. aims to reduce the number of TB deaths by 95 percent.
Treatment of Alzheimer's
Researchers are exploring multiple approaches for a drug that could prevent or greatly slow the progression of Alzheimer's disease, which killed more than 120,000 Americans in 2019.
Stop the epigenetic clock
Drug cocktails under development can slow or reverse epigenetic clocks. These are molecular changes in DNA that affect which genes are expressed in old age.
Effective malaria vaccines
The only malaria vaccine available today requires four shots to achieve 40 percent or less protection. New bursts in clinical trials and mRNA vaccines in the future could do much better.
Bubbles cultivated in laboratories are already living in humans. Once researchers figure out how to restore the complex system of blood vessels in other organs – such as the kidneys, livers, and hearts – many more could follow.
Banish old cells
A new class of drugs may be able to kill or neutralize "senescent" cells, which emit molecules that accelerate inflammation and other characteristics of cell decay.
An antifungal agent against aging
Rapamycin, an antifungal drug first approved for preventing organ rejection, has increased the life of mice by more than a third. One study tested the effects in 350 dogs. Tests on humans are planned.
Various clinical studies
African Americans are historically underrepresented in clinical trials. Eliminating this inequality, along with other health initiatives, could help reduce life expectancy between white and black Americans (78 years versus 72 years).
Possible in 20-50 years
Avoiding Car Accidents With Automation
The global implementation of self-driving cars could reduce the number of deaths from car accidents by an estimated 585,000 people over a period of 10 years.
No more car smog
A widespread transition to electric vehicles in the US could improve air quality enough to save 6,300 lives annually by 2050.
Eliminate fossil fuel consumption
The researchers estimate that tackling air pollution by eliminating fossil fuel emissions and using wind, solar, nuclear and other low-emission energy sources could increase life expectancy by 1.1 years.
Better ways to kill mosquitoes and mosquito larvae, better access to rapid tests, and new therapies for treatment with artemisinin could end malaria – and the 400,000 deaths it causes each year – within decades.
Even if the United States' goal of ending extreme poverty by 2030 becomes increasingly unlikely, continued economic growth – combined with stricter global tax laws – would help extend lifespans.
Possible in 50-100 years
Advanced robotic surgeons could stitch wounds, remove tumors and repair tissues with unprecedented precision, reducing deaths from medical errors.
Rise of the Nanobots
One day, nanoscale robots could build sensors and other devices in our bodies that would help break up blood clots, fight cancer, and deliver precisely targeted drugs.
The clock is rewound through cellular reprogramming
Triggering a handful of genes can make cells young again and rejuvenate organs. Using a carefully coordinated injection, the researchers recently restored vision to mice with damaged optic nerves.
A clinic in your home
Advanced robotics and A.I. Activate the ultimate personalized medical station: after morning saliva and urine tests, a home medical device designs and prints medication to optimize your metabolism and microbiome for that day.