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As several COVID-19 vaccines are either being launched or tested, here is an overview of the various stages in their development.
– On the market
PFIZER / BIONTECH
The mRNA vaccine developed by the US pharmaceutical giant Pfizer and the German start-up BioNTech has already been approved for use in the European Union, the USA, Canada, Great Britain and several other countries.
Clinical studies have shown that the vaccine, which instructs the body to identify and destroy COVID-19 molecules by the immune system, is more than 95 percent effective.
Another mRNA vaccine with an efficacy rate of 94.1 percent has been approved for use in the EU, North America, the UK, and several other countries including Israel and Singapore.
ASTRAZENECA / OXFORD
This vector viral vaccine is approved for use in the EU, UK and other countries such as India.
It has been shown to be 60 percent effective in studies, but a relative lack of safety and efficacy data in older participants has led several countries to recommend giving the vaccine to people over 65.
Russia's vaccine works similarly to the AstraZeneca / Oxford vaccine but has an efficacy of 91.6 percent according to test results.
More than a dozen nations have approved its use, including Belarus, Armenia, Iran, Algeria, Argentina, South Korea, and Venezuela.
Manufacturers have started asking the European Medicines Agency for approval. Hungary is the only EU member state that has started dosed administration.
Two vaccines developed in China use the traditional technique of injecting the deactivated virus to trigger an immune response.
In addition to the United Arab Emirates, Hungary, Cambodia, Peru and Zimbabwe have started administering the vaccine, which according to the manufacturers is 79 percent effective.
The other vaccine developed in China uses a similar technique and is approved for use in China, Chile, Brazil, and Turkey.
Others like Ukraine and Uruguay have pre-ordered cans.
Manufacturers say it is 50 percent effective against COVID-19 (and 80 percent effective against serious diseases), but the test results have not yet been published.
JOHNSON & JOHNSON
The US pharmaceutical company has applied for an emergency approval for its single vaccine in the US and the EU.
South Africa became the first country to start administering the Johnson & Johnson vaccine after it announced it would prioritize its procurement over the AstraZeneca sting.
Studies showed that it was 66 percent effective against COVID-19 and 85 percent effective against severe forms of infection.
This inactivated virus vaccine is currently in use in India.
A viral vector vaccine made in China was approved for use in Mexico last week but has not yet been given to the public.
– Authorization pending
This American vaccine is currently under review by the EMA, which has the final say on medical approvals in the EU.
It is based on "sub-unit" proteins that trigger an immune response without releasing the entire virus.
Manufacturers say it's 89.3 percent effective.
The German vaccine was reviewed by the EMA last week. It uses technology similar to the Moderna and Pfizer / BioNTech collars.
– Still in development
According to the World Health Organization, there are currently 69 vaccines against the novel coronavirus in human studies.
Another 180 vaccine candidates are in development but have yet to begin testing in humans.
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© 2021 AFP
COVID-19 vaccines online or in development (2021, February 17)
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